man in black and white polo shirt beside writing board

This, that, here, there

We use this/that/these/those to explain what we are talking about. We sometimes use them with nouns and we sometimes use them on their own. The below simple tablet is a very handy resource.

ThisThat
Rule 1: Always is a singular pronoun.Rule: Always is a singular pronoun.
Rule 2: Something close by. Something near.Rule 2: Something that is far. Something far.
Example: This is a marker (I’m holding it)Example: That is a marker (over there on that table)
This can also be used to introduce someone (one person). For example. This is my friend Mary. 
This can be used to introduce yourself over the phone. For example. If you answer the phone. You could say: Hello this is John. Do not do this in person only over the phone. 
TheseThose
Rule 1: Always is a plural pronoun.Rule: Always is a plural pronoun.
Rule 2: Many things (more than one) near.Rule 2: Many things (more than one) that is far.
Example: These are markers (I’m holding them)Example: Those are markers (there not close to me they are on the table)
These can be used to introduce more than one person. For example. These are my friends Mary and Peter.